Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer to Experience First Light Next Tuesday
The first of ten telescopes that will make up the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) will experience first light on the evening of Tuesday, November 29th. The MROI First Light event will be streamed live on the Magdalena Ridge Observatory website, www.mrop.nmt.edu, starting at 7:30 Mountain Time on Tuesday, November 29th.
The MROI is an optical interferometer with an array of ten 1.4-meter diameter telescopes spread out across the mountaintop in a Y configuration, and the light from all ten telescopes can be combined to observe objects in the sky with incredible resolution.
“Our telescopes are unique,” said Dr. Ifan Payne, the Program Director for Magdalena Ridge Observatory, “they were specially designed for interferometry and together they will create the most powerful optical array on earth.” The degree of detail is strong enough that you could almost make out the face of a person standing on the moon, or, looking from Los Angeles, you could see a dime being held by someone in New York.
The Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) is currently under development in the Magdalena Mountains, 28 miles west of Socorro, New Mexico. The array of 10 telescopes is located on a ridge at an altitude of 10,460 above sea level and is being designed and installed in a collaboration between New Mexico Tech and the University of Cambridge under federal funding administered by the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) which is based in Albuquerque, NM.
“We are thrilled that we have been able to come this far with the project,” said Dr. Payne, “It has been a long journey for a complex undertaking to which so many have contributed over the years. All of us, weather permitting of course, will be celebrate First Light as being the most significant mile stone to date on that journey.”
Work on developing the Interferometer began when scientists from the University of Cambridge in the UK joined the team at New Mexico Tech to design the ground breaking, world-class astronomical facility. There are currently three operating optical interferometers in the world, in Arizona, California and Chile, and the MROI will be up to a thousand times more powerful than any of them. In fact, depending on the wavelength, the MROI will be 100 to 200 times more powerful than the Hubble Telescope.
The Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer is funded by a Cooperative Agreement (number FA9453-15-2-0086) with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL).
On May 19, 2016, a major milestone was reached at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) when the first of ten telescopes was installed at the Observatory, perched at 10,460 feet on the Magdalena Mountains west of Socorro, New Mexico. This telescope will be the centerpiece of an optical ten-telescope array that is designed to view the universe in both optical and infrared wavelengths.
The telescope was built by AMOS, an optical systems manufacturer located in Liège, Belgium, and shipped from there to the New Mexico Tech campus where it had been stored, waiting for the completion of the telescope commissioning facility at the Observatory, and also for warmer and drier Spring weather.
On May 17, 2016, the 15-ton telescope had begun the final leg of its journey to the Observatory. It was hoisted onto a 40-ft. trailer which left the warehouse at the New Mexico Tech Energetic Materials Research & Testing Center (EMRTC) at 11:00 am in the morning, traveling through the EMRTC Test Range, and arriving at the US60 highway just after noon. It then took four hours to transport the telescope up the single-track, unpaved 8 miles of Forest Road 235, which climbs over 4,000 feet, to the Observatory on the South Baldy Ridge of the Magdalena Mountains.
Dr. Van Romero, Vice President for Research and Economic Development at New Mexico Tech, and the Principle Investigator of the Interferometer, puts the achievement in perspective: “Moving the first interferometric telescope to the Observatory is a monumental step forward. Up until now we have been working on the mechanical aspects of the observatory. Now we begin the transition into the optical systems.”
Magdalena Ridge Observatory Program Director, Dr. Ifan Payne, praised the work of the project staff. “Many people have worked for many years to get to this point, so it is both an exciting milestone for the project and a testament for the dedication and professional skill of the engineers and scientists involved.”
The telescope was scheduled to be unpacked from its shipping crate, following the arrival of a 120-ton crane, but the poor weather caused delays. Storms reduced visibly at the Observatory to 100 feet and then it began to hail, which developed into a snow storm – in May! It had been planned that the shipping crate would be dismantled outdoors and the crane would then lift the 15 metric-ton telescope into its temporary home in the Telescope Receiving area of the Maintenance Facility, but the long storm and a bad weather forecast forced the decision to end the work and for the scientists and technicians to return down the Forest Road while it was still safe to do so.
Installation of the telescope resumed on May 19, 2016. It was unpacked and lowered onto five special, motion-dampening foundations. The kinematic foundations that the telescope sits on are separated from the building’s foundation by several inches of specially-designed silicone compound. This allows movement of the individual mounting points while ensuring that the telescope remains locked into position relative to other telescopes in the array.
Once the telescope was in position, work started on the long and delicate task of installing the three mirrors which comprise the optical path within the telescope. The primary mirror, which is the largest, is 1.4 meters in diameter.
“Site Acceptance Testing will take six weeks, after which there will be a lengthy commissioning process leading eventually to first light”, explained Dr. Payne.
The Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) is located on 1,000 acres, on a ridge adjacent to the 10,700-foot South Baldy peak of the Magdalena Mountains in Socorro County, New Mexico (NM). This multi-use research and educational observatory is built and operated by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT), with offices located on the NMT campus in Socorro, NM. The MRO consists of two major facilities: an operational 2.4-meter fast-tracking telescope (MRO 2.4-Meter Telescope), and Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI), an optical array of 10-1.4 meter telescopes that is designed to simulate the resolution, (magnification, or detail) of a single telescope, ranging in size from 7.5 meters to 340 meters in diameter. When complete, the MROI will have 100 to 200 times the resolution of the Hubble telescope at only 2% of the cost of that space telescope.
The mission of the Magdalena Ridge Observatory is to support astronomy research, space situational awareness, and educational outreach.
“As we progress, we will start to collect light which is always a significant step forward,” says Dr. Romero. “We are now one step closer to collecting science data in support of our goals.”
(Press Release from New Mexico Tech)
Astronomers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory recently assisted NASA and SETI track a piece of space junk with the 2.4-meter telescope as it impacted the Earth over the Indian Ocean near Sri Lanka on Friday, Nov. 13. Within hours of that project, the MRO team also tracked an asteroid that passed within the zone of Earth-orbiting communications satellites on November 14.
“We were doing the work as part of a world-wide collaborative team as a test case for future scenarios to deal with hazardous asteroids that may impact the Earth,” said Dr. Eileen Ryan, director of the 2.4-meter telescope. “The team got some neat pictures from the airplane of the debris streaking as it came in.”
|An image from the MRO of a piece of space junk.
The object was WT1190F, and a plane in Abu Dhabi was chartered to get images and data as the debris hit. Dr. Bill Ryan, telescope scientist at the MRO, provided NASA’s Jet Propulsion Lab with astrometry to refine the error bars to help determine exactly where the debris would impact. The astrometric data provided by MRO for entry location modeling helped reduce an impossibly large uncertainty to a doable, large uncertainty which was very encouraging.
The space debris had been identified in late October and observers had determined that it would impact the Earth on November 13. Observers on the airplane took video of the space junk as it appeared to burn up. Eileen Ryan said that if any portion of the debris survived re-entry it would be in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Sri Lanka. For more information and images of the incoming debris see: http://impact.seti.org/ (scroll down to the middle of the page for MRO’s early, critical astrometry contribution).
As observers were tracking the debris, an asteroid was discovered that would pass very close to the Earth (within the man-made satellite zone) the next night (Nov. 14).
The Ryans got data on the object’s spin rate, and took a picture on Nov. 14 of the asteroid in the background with an (unresolved) image streak of a known geosynchronous satellite in the foreground (though safely far enough away this time).
“I was surprised,” Eileen Ryan said. “It was a one-two punch. One cool thing, then another cool thing. The International Astronomical Center in Abu Dhabi together with the United Arab Emirates Space Agency chartered a plane to track the space junk. Then, 20 hours later, we’re seeing an asteroid within the geosynchronous satellite belt. That took Bill and me by surprise.”
Dr. Van Romero, Vice President of Research at Tech, said the positive results on these two back-to-back projects are further proof that the MRO is a top-drawer telescope.
“This facility was designed to be able to do quick response and this is yet another example of how the facility – combined with the people who operate the facility – can respond quickly and do things that challenge the rest of the world’s observatories,” Romero said. “The facility can’t do it alone. You need skilled people who can do the measurements and do it quickly. The combination of the facility, plus Bill and Eileen Ryan, appear to be the best in the world. That’s why NASA, the Air Force and the National Science Foundation are beating a path to their door to take advantage of the capabilities we have at Tech.”
|The fast-tracking telescope captured this image of an asteroid as it approached Earth.
The asteroid – named 2015 VY105 – was first discovered by astronomers at the Catalina Sky Survey in Tucson. Within the hour, the Ryans were using the MRO 2.4-meter telescope to track it further.
“Catalina found it as a dot,” she said. “As a follow-up telescope, we lengthened the arc of the orbit of that dot and figured out how close it was coming to Earth. Bill did a quick orbit calculation and it was getting kind of close, but looked like it was safely not going to hit us. It was a bit unnerving, but it’s a great opportunity. We’re in the middle of a shooting gallery.”
Once it became clear that this asteroid was coming close, the Ryans put out a call to their European colleagues to assist in tracking while it was daylight in New Mexico. Although it was not going to hit the Earth, its close approach was going to provide a great opportunity to study these types of small asteroids that are on a collision course and lead to the events like the airburst over Chelyabinsk, Russia in February of 2013. Most observatories had bad weather, but three stations from Romania, France, and Italy were able to help.
“This is a beautiful demonstration of how – with little warning – we can use worldwide resources on something that could be potentially hazardous,” Eileen Ryan said. “It’s heart-warming to get international cooperation and find people who are willing to work together and do it quickly.”
The asteroid came within 10 percent of the distance between the Earth and the Moon, or within about 18,600 miles (30,000 km) of the Earth. It was traveling at about 17 kilometers/second in its orbit, and was 5 to 10 meters in diameter. The Ryans were able to observe it tumbling while spinning once every two minutes. Analysis of the collected spectral data will help determine the asteroid’s composition.
Eileen Ryan said the asteroid was so close and so bright that even smaller telescopes could track its path. Two students are helping make sense of the data. Heidi Love, who recently got her master’s degree, is assisting in understanding the fundamentals of how asteroids break up, along with Travis Crockett, a senior in physics, who is analyzing man-made satellite observations. Crockett and Bill Ryan plan more space debris monitoring in the wake of that incident.
Romero said, “This is an extraordinary opportunity for students to learn the techniques, but to also participate in cutting-edge research – real-time, right-now science.”
The MRO 2.4-Meter Telescope will receive funding from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in early 2016 to monitor the launch and re-entry of commercial space vehicles from Spaceport America, a facility north of Las Cruces, New Mexico. MRO investigators will record and monitor suborbital space vehicles, stratospheric balloons, and other assets. The Principle Investigator and Co-Principle Investigator of the grant, Drs. Eileen and William Ryan, have extensive experience with tracking fast-moving natural and man-made objects in orbit.
An undergraduate student from New Mexico Tech’s Mechanical Engineering Department will assist with software development for closed-loop tracking of fast terrestrial targets with the MRO 2.4-Meter Telescope. As observations are acquired, the student will analyze performance data to supplement or validate safety data collected from other sources.
Operational funding for the MRO 2.4-Meter Telescope is dependent on outside grants and contracts. The monies from the FAA will help keep the Observatory financially viable. Currently, 80% of operations funding comes from NASA grants to study Near-Earth asteroids and comets, national security work involving the Air Force, and internal New Mexico Tech research projects. Over 100 students per year utilize the 2.4-meter observatory to supplement their coursework and acquire hands-on experience in exciting ongoing initiatives.